Your brain is your body’s control center. It’s part of the nervous system, which also includes the spinal cord and a large network of nerves and neurons. Together, the nervous system controls everything from your five senses to the muscles throughout your body.

When your brain is damaged, it can affect many different things, including your memory, your sensation, and even your personality. Brain disorders include any conditions or disabilities that affect your brain. This includes those conditions that are caused by illness, genetics, or traumatic injury.

Brain disorders can affect anyone, but your risk factors are different for different types of brain disorders.

Traumatic brain injury is most common in children, young adults who are under 25 years old, and adults who are 65 and older.

Brain tumors can affect people at any age. Your personal risk depends on your genetics and your exposure to environmental risk factors like radiation.

Older age and family history are the most significant risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases.

Your primary care physician or a neurological specialist can diagnose a brain disorder.

Your doctor will likely perform a neurological exam to check your vision, hearing, and balance. Your doctor might also get images of your brain to make a diagnosis. The most common diagnostic imaging tools are CT, MRI, and PET scans.

Your doctor might also need to study fluid from your brain and spinal cord. This helps them find bleeding in the brain, infection, and other abnormalities.

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